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For the same reason, avoid contact between such metals and the carbon-filled mortars used to join the carbon units. A voltage breaker should be inserted between them. Carbon Bricks. Introduction Carbon brick is made from high quality carbon containing materials and acid proof organic compound, which is shaped under high pressure and bonded by high quality bonding material, giving high mechanical strength.

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General Guide to Chemical Resistance of carbon Brick Note :- This table is intended for use as a general guide to the resistance of carbon brick in immersion service at ambient temperature. This design criteria was established by API after failure of a few large new oil storage tanks during hydrostatic testing with: a view to providing a high order of resistance to brittle fracture at the lowest temperature to which the metal walls of the tank is expected to fall on the coldest day of record for the locality where the tank is to be installed. Low Temperature Service.

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The use of SA or SA is not permitted. Impact tests are required except for seasonal temperature excursions below -2OF C or when exempted by paragraph UCS c which states that no impact test is required for materials used for metal temperatures below -2OF C when the minimum thickness is the greater of those determined under the most severe conditions of coincident pressure external or internal and temperature in accordance with UG for temperatures of a -2OF C and above and b below -2OF C.

Paragraph UCS requires postweld heat treatment of all vessels requiring impact testing, unless exempted in paragraph UCS 66 c. Heat treatment shall. Code, Sect. The steel shall be made with fine grain practice. The plates shall be normalized or quenched tempered. All plates over 14 inches in thickness shall be normalized.

The material supplied shall be other than rimed or capped steel. SA Grade B. The design temperature temperatures temperatures normalized If ultra efficients shown notch test requirements testing temperature. For transverse tests, the minimum to meet these requirements. Code permits the use of certain it is desirable to limit their use to temperatures. The corrosion struction rosion. Nickel coefficients alloys such as Alloy of thermal. Society since of echanical are.

Other services such as hydrogen embrittlement bolting. Results of this study show in Table suitable more peratures. Impact tests SA Heat treated with Long.

Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook by Walter Lee Sheppard

Impact tests. Since the steel shell must must be limited selecting or the lining will steel are. There including agitators and heating elements coils. When the term pansion of the brick for the steel. The out of roundness of a cylindrical of the difference A template circumference When not exceed ceed 1s inch. The ASME flanges, limited themselves. Dished or Conical Bottoms: Supports must be so located as to support the vessel and its extra weight uniformly and completely without distortion of the vessel.

Thus: a b If support legs are used, they should be centered lining column tangentially to the vessel body. If a continuous skirt is used, the skirt should be centered directly under the brick column and should be vented to provide adequate ventilation under the vessel Reference 8, pp so that the temperature of the bottom will not be significantly hotter than the shell during operation.

Flat Bottoms: Flat bottom vertical cylindrical tanks present particular problems. The bottom must be so constructed and supported as to be completely rigid and well ventilated from the sides and underneath. This may usually be provided by I beams. The bottom shall be tack welded to the I beam so that the bottom will not flex and crack the lining when it is installed. Reference 8, p The maximum free span between I beams can be calculated on the basis that the maximum deflection under full load conditions shall not exceed the free span divided by However, in the case of vessels containing only gas at atmospheric pressure and no internal spheres, then the deflection can be as great as the distance divided by Figure Tank head.

The right way and the wrong way to weld a dome head on a cylindrical tank. It is next to impossible to make a tight weld in the head on the left, due to the inaccessible void. A continuous filled weld is used on the head on the right. Vessels of this design should port for the sels must of circumference. The This will always bottom result of the vessel should, and following A masonry and except if practical,.

Figure Recommended style of reinforcing for a rectangular steel tank. Note gusset section above, left welded at top to channel, on side to tank wall, on bottom to extension of I beam.

I beam weld is to face exactly opposite web see Section B-B. This type reinforcing prevents deformation of tank walls when loaded.

Sheppard, Jr. Used by permission. I beam inside the tank end. The short sides also require gusset or T-plates. These are also welded Reference to the channel welded down the sides of the in from the end. Reference If such a vessel is to receive a masonry with dished or hemispherical 8, p Unless the steel deck is rigidly causing the brick or monolithic If the steel decking ture flooring. If the flooring which siderable undergoes.

Membrane surfaces should be continuous and unbroken throughout the interior of the vessel and through all inlets, outlets and other openings so that the contained liquids may not find and penetrate any discontinuity or juncture with a different material. In other words, the openings should be flanged, not screwed and interior surfaces must be radiused and blend smoothly into the wall of the vessel.

Then the outlet location must be designed as a point of no movement between expansion joints or stress relief points. If, due to the complexity of vessel design, not all stresses may be relieved, and shearing moments must be anticipated, a flexible material must be selected to sleeve the outlet, rather than the usual ceramic sleeve. From these principles, it should be noted that inlet and outlet piping or steam piping leading to heaters or coils should not, if at all possible, pass through the vessel wall or bottom, but be brought in over the top. If they must pass through a wall or bottom, then the designer should try to design them to pass through a properly lined or sleeved opening so that said service elements are not part of the supporting structure, and so that the membrane can remain continuous and intact.

All nozzles and externals should be suitably braced and strengthened by gusseting or by welding collars to prevent bending or deformation under blows or movement, thus causing damage at point of entry into vessels. All nozzles should be flanged and matched with an over-sized flange so that the I. Manholes should be designed large enough to allow for removing sand after blasting, provide ventilation during membrane installation, to admit workman, equipment and brick during lining and to allow for the thickness of the brick lining.

Two 24 inch nozzles are suggested for large tanks. Small nozzles should be avoided. Nozzles should be kept as short as possible to allow proper surface preparation, membrane application and ceramic lining. Recommended maximum lengths are shown in Appen-. This can cause galvanic corrosion of the steel shell if the membrane is not impervious or becomes damaged and the liquid in the tanks is an electrolyte.

Galvanic corrosion can be prevented by electrically insulating internals from contact with the shell or metal parts which are connected to the shell. The interior of the shell should be kept as clean and uncluttered as possible. Reinforcements should be on the outside of the vessel.


The type of membrane lining may impose specific limitations on the type of baffles, outlets and inlets and the like, which the designer may wish to install. If coils or heaters are installed, they shall be kept a minimum of six inches away from the walls or bottom of ceramic lined vessels. Welds: The vessel shall be welded, using full penetration, longitudinal and circumferential butt welds. This can usually be done by using certain welding techniques. Otherwise the welds must be ground flush. It is also necessary that circumferential welds do not cause a draw string or constricted effect and that longitudinal welds do not cause distortions when heads of different thicknesses are welded to shells, the inside surfaces must be even and flush.

Surface Preparation: The steel surfaces to receive the membrane lining must be smooth, free from pits, millscale, weld splatter, and lap welds. The surface must be sandblasted just before application of the membrane on interior surfaces and a paint system on exterior surfaces. Sandblasting should be in accordance with specifications supplied by the manufacturers of the membrane and protective coating system.

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This may require welding inside corners and then grinding to the proper radius. Pressure Testing Vessels fabricated Code must be. Since the vessel should be tested should before the certhe additional test pressure. The author has used various sources in prepar' ing this specification, including a model specification prepared by Pennwalt, and excerpts from "Chemically Resistant Masonry" by W. Reference 8. Tensile strain is defined as the allowable design working stress, divided by the modulus of elasticity of the steel. In the case of carbon steel, this strain equates to a maximum design working stress of 20, psi MPa.

Steels shall have sufficient notch toughness to avoid brittle fracture under both operating and shutdown conditions.